The subspace axiom: systems which can store the same amount of information are physically equivalent. Nonlocality research efforts in quantum foundations focus on determining the exact limits that classical or quantum physics enforces on the correlations observed in a Bell experi… Every particle and every wave in the Universe is simply an excitation of a quantum … In addition, none of the previous axioms can be experimentally falsified unless the measurement apparatuses are assumed to be tomographically complete. Graduate Admissions: (518) 442-3980 And, at best, to develop a conception of physical reality which takes quantum theory fully into account, to develop a conception which is as coherent and compelling as the mechanical conception of reality, and which is capable of guiding the further development of physics. The transistor, the basis for the modern computer that underlies all information processing technology, requires quantum theory for its design and modeling. Some of the counter-intuitive aspects of quantum theory, as well as the difficulty to extend it, follow from the fact that its defining axioms lack a physical motivation. [13], L. Hardy introduced the concept of GPT in 2001, in an attempt to re-derive quantum theory from basic physical principles. As shown by Oreshkov et al.,[31] some process matrices describe situations where the notion of global causality breaks. There is an on-going debate on whether the wave-function represents the epistemic state of a yet to be discovered ontic variable or, on the contrary, it is a fundamental entity. The rooms have ingoing and outgoing channels from which a quantum system periodically enters and leaves the room. It is expected, therefore, that far-from-quantum physical theories should predict correlations beyond the quantum set. Nonlocality research efforts in quantum foundations focus on determining the exact limits that classical or quantum physics enforces on the correlations observed in a Bell experiment or more complex causal scenarios. [29] The entries of the decoherence functional determine the feasibility to experimentally discriminate between two or more different sets of classical histories, as well as the probabilities of each experimental outcome. Yet more quantum technology, such as quantum computers and quantum cryptography, is waiting in the wings, promising to transform our lives still further. In the eighty-five years since its creation, quantum theory has proved itself capable of accounting precisely for a vast range of physical phenomena such as the principles of chemical bonding and chemical reactions, the nuclear reactions that fuel the stars, and exotic phenomena like superconductivity. This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. Those efforts come in two flavors, depending on the desired level of description of the theory: the so called Generalized Probabilistic Theories approach and the Black boxes approach. [14] The work of Dakic and Brukner eliminated this “axiom of simplicity” and provided a reconstruction of quantum theory based on three physical principles. Taken at face value, quantum theory challenges many of the key tenets of the mechanical conception of reality. [13] Although Hardy’s work was very influential (see the follow-ups below), one of his axioms was regarded as unsatisfactory: it stipulated that, of all the physical theories compatible with the rest of the axioms, one should choose the simplest one. In an attempt to reconcile quantum and classical physics, or to identify non-classical models with a dynamical causal structure, some modifications of quantum theory have been proposed. Two or more separate parties conducting measurements over a quantum state can observe correlations which cannot be explained with any local hidden variable theory. But, since the beginning of its existence, quantum theory has been of great interest for quite another reason. Essentially, they provide a statistical description of any experiment combining state preparations, transformations and measurements. [9] Note that, in QBism[10] and Copenhagen-type[11] views, quantum states are still regarded as epistemic, not with respect to some ontic variable, but to one’s expectations about future experimental outcomes. In our group, we are particularly interested in developing a deep understanding of quantum theory by reconstructing (deriving) the mathematical formalism of quantum theory from a set of compelling physical principles. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory is a collection of papers presented at the 1977 conference on the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory, held in New Orleans. An active area of research in quantum foundations is therefore to find alternative formulations of quantum theory which rely on physically compelling principles. The Foundations of Quantum Field Theory. [28] Such theories provide an explanation to the nonexistence of superpositions of macroscopic objects, at the cost of abandoning unitarity and exact energy conservation. For instance, in the pilot wave theory, the quantum wave function is interpreted as a field that guides the particle trajectory and evolves with it via a system of coupled differential equations. Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. That picture of reality, which was developed by Descartes, Galileo, and Newton (amongst others), underpinned the development of physics—what is now called … Order Foundations of Quantum Theory ISBN @ €280.00 Qty: Order Ebook This volume provides a summary of the lectures presented at the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" on the Foundations of Quantum Theory… Classical physics, the description of physics that existed before the theory … While they lead to the right experimental predictions, they do not come with a mental picture of the world where they fit. [12] Notably, a small set of physically motivated axioms is enough to single out the GPT representation of quantum theory. Third, one can search for a full correspondence between the mathematical elements of the quantum framework and physical phenomena: any such correspondence is called an. Collapse models posit the existence of natural processes which periodically localize the wave-function. MIT Press. Local tomography: to characterize the state of a composite system it is enough to conduct measurements at each part.

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